How do scientific journal publishers generate profit?

Scientific journal publishers generate profit through a variety of sources. One of the primary ways is by charging subscription fees to libraries, universities, and other institutions that wish to access their publications. These fees can be quite substantial, especially for journals with high impact factors and prestigious reputations. Additionally, publishers may offer individual article or issue purchases to those who don't have a subscription. Some journals also charge authors publication fees or article processing charges (APCs) to cover the costs of peer review and production. Moreover, publishers may enter into licensing agreements with database providers, allowing them to distribute articles to a wider audience for a fee. Lastly, scientific publishers often offer additional services such as advertising and sponsorships, further contributing to their overall revenue streams.
This mind map was published on 20 November 2023 and has been viewed 84 times.

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